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Notes on Methodology and Sources of Data



Maps throughout the Asia Matters for America/America Matters for Asia website and publications are not necessarily drawn to scale and should not be regarded as accurate depictions of geographical features. Place names and territorial boundaries conform to US Department of State standards with the exception of the map of India shown on the India Matters to America/America Matters to India publication which conforms to Indian Ministry of External Affairs boundaries due to Indian law.



State and Congressional district level goods and services trade data was estimated by the Trade Partnership from data collected from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the International Trade Administration (ITA), US Department of Agriculture, and Moody’s Analytics data. Supplemental information comes from the BEA, ITA, and individual countries' trade agencies. Services data is not available for some countries in the Asia Matters for America/America Matters for Asia and ASEAN Matters for America/America Matters for ASEAN publications and these limitations are noted on the appropriate graphics/pages.



US Direct Investment Abroad and Foreign Direct Investment in the US data is obtained from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Foreign companies operating in the US and American companies operating in Asia is based on data from Uniworld Business Publications database. This data is collected by Uniworld via each company and is based on the physical location of each subsidiary. Corporate investment data for the India Matters to America/America Matters to India publication is based on a survey by the Confederation of Indian Industries and Grant Thorton and supplemented with data from the Indian Embassy to the United States. 

Data on greenfield investment since 2003 in the ASEAN Matters for America/America Matters for ASEAN and Korea Matters for America/America Matters for Korea projects comes from the fDi Markets database 


Travel and Tourism

Tourism data is from the Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI), the UN World Tourism Organisation, and the tourism bureaus of the related Asian countries.



US Census population data reflects people who self-reported their ethnicity on the census form as “Asian alone or in combination with other races.” Data on ethnicity and population is from the US Census Bureau via their American Fact Finder search tool and the 2010 Census Brief on the Asian population. Later figures are estimates from the American Community Survey, which produces 1,3, and 5-year estimates on population with varying margins of error. The American Community Survey is a part of the US Census Bureau and is based on data from the most recent US Census. The Asia Matters for America/America Matters for Asia website and publications use data from the American Community Survey 5-year estimates of Asian alone or in combination by selected groups aggregated from the Congressional district data unless otherwise noted.



International student data is from the Institute for International Education’s Open Doors Report. Data shown for each project represents the most recent available academic year at the time of publication. Academic years begin the fall and end in the summer. US students studying abroad data is one academic year behind data on international students studying in the US. Data on the economic contribution of students is calculated by the East-West Center in Washington based on data from NAFSA: Association of International Educators on the economic contribution of international students in the US. This data is calculated by assuming that all international students contribute equally to the state or district economies and should not be taken to reflect actual spending by students.


Sister Cities

Sister cities are based on Sister Cities International data and individual sister city sources. Not all sister cities are members of the Sister Cities International membership organization, data on some sister city relationships are collected from government websites (including the Governors Association of Korea and the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR) in Japan, news articles, and sister city-specific websites.


Included Countries/Economies

Northeast Asia: China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan, Hong Kong

Southeast Asia: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma) Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Timor-Leste

South Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Pacific: Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu